Welcome to the club! - There is no easy way (I too would like to know if their is) where you are ranking in the search engines. Furthermore, the ranking you see on your browser screen is probably different from what I see on my screen. The reason is that Google tries to show you websites that are relevant to your physical location based on your IP address. For an example, if you are doing a search on "plumbing" as will as me, we will see different results of websites snippets listed on the search result pages.
Indexing from the search engines like Google Bot, what they do is go into your website and index every word into their database. So when someone does a search on a keyword or keyword phrase, every website snippet in the world will be displayed on your monitor or mobile device. - that is way you see millions of results listed at the top of your browser screen.
Ranking - No one knows how the Search Engines like Google ranks websites. They keep that a secrete. But basically, the more focused your keyword with respect to your website along with certain Tags like <h1> will put you closer up in the ranking.
This is also way marcus focuses on sub-keywords versus primary keywords. - Example you will see him focus on refinance verses Mortgage. There's much less competition for refinance respect to mortgages.
But keep in mind, I have only touched to top of the iceberg. In my opinion, this SEO and ranking is a science in it own right!